Information About Skin, Hair, and Nails You Should Know

Skin, Hair, and Nails. The skin is the largest organ of our body. The skin of an adult male with a weight of 68 kilograms is stretched, it will reach an area of about 1.7 square meters and weighs about 4 kilograms.

Human skin protects the network of muscles, nerves, bones, blood vessels, and all important organs in our body. The thinnest skin is on the eyelids, while the thickest is on the soles of our feet.
Skin, Hair, and Nails
Hair is actually a type of skin that is modified and grows in all parts of the human body except our feet, palms, and lips. In summer or during the day, hair grows faster than winter or night.

Like hair, nails are also a modified type of skin, and serves to protect sensitive fingertips and toes from injury, and help us take small things, scratch itching or untied.

The disease often affects nail growth, and it turns out that nails can also be a general health indicator for a person.

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Skin Basics

Skin is very important for human survival. This is because the skin forms a barrier that prevents microorganisms and harmful substances from entering the body.

The skin also protects the body's tissues against injury, controls the loss of fluids such as blood and water, helps regulate body temperature through sweating, and protects us from damaging ultraviolet light.

In addition, the skin can also respond to situations and emotions. Without the presence of nerve cells in the skin, we cannot feel warm, cold or other sensations.

Every square inch of our skin contains thousands of cells, hundreds of sweat glands, nerve endings, oil glands, and blood vessels.

Human skin consists of three layers: epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous tissue.

Skin Cells and Layers

The upper layer of our skin, the epidermis, is the extreme, defensive external layer. The epidermis has four layers of cells that are always chipping off and being restored. In these four layers are three unique kinds of cells:
  • Melanocytes deliver melanin, the shade that gives skin its shading. All individuals have generally a similar number of melanocytes; the more melanin that is delivered, the darker the skin. Presentation to daylight builds the generation of melanin, which is the reason individuals get suntanned or freckled.
  • Keratinocytes create keratin, a sort of protein that is an essential segment of hair and nails. Keratin is likewise found in skin cells in the skin's external layer, where it makes a defensive obstruction.
  • Langerhans cells help secure the body against contamination.
Since the cells in the epidermis are totally supplanted about every 28 days, cuts and scratches recuperate rapidly.

Beneath the epidermis is the following layer of our skin, the dermis, which is comprised of veins, nerve endings, and connective tissue. The dermis sustains the epidermis.

Without specific particles in the dermis, our skin wouldn't extend when we twist or reposition itself when we rectify up. These two sorts of filaments in the dermis, collagen, and elastin, enable the skin to stretch and reposition itself when we move. Collagen is solid and difficult to stretch and elastin, as its name recommends, is flexible. In more established individuals, a portion of the elastin-containing filaments deteriorates, which is one motivation behind why the skin looks wrinkled.

The dermis additionally contains a man's sebaceous organs. These organs, which encompass and void into our hair follicles and pores, deliver an oil called sebum that greases up the skin and hair. Sebaceous organs are discovered for the most part in the skin on the face, upper back, shoulders, and chest.

More often than not, the sebaceous organs make the perfect measure of sebum. As a man's body develops and create amid the adolescent years, however, hormones animate the sebaceous organs to make more sebum. This can prompt skin inflammation when pores wind up obstructed by an excessive amount of sebum and an excessive number of dead skin cells. Further down the road, these organs deliver less sebum, which adds to dry skin in more seasoned individuals.

The base layer of our skin, the subcutaneous tissue, is comprised of connective tissue, sweat organs, veins, and cells that store fat. This layer shields the body from blows and different wounds and causes it to hold in body warmth.

There are two kinds of perspiration creating organs. The eccrine organs are discovered wherever in our bodies, in spite of the fact that they are for the most part in the brow, palms, and bottoms of the feet. By creating sweat, these organs help direct body temperature, and waste items are discharged through them.

The other kind of perspiration creating an organ, the apocrine organs, create at pubescence and are moved in the armpits and pubic locale. The perspiration from the apocrine organs is thicker than that delivered by the eccrine organs. Despite the fact that this perspiration doesn't smell, when it blends with microbes on the skin's surface, it can cause a stench.

A typical, solid grown-up secretes around 1 half quart (about a large portion of a liter) of perspiration every day, except this might be expanded by physical movement, fever, or a hot domain.

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Hair Basics

The hair on our heads isn't only there for looks. It keeps us warm by protecting warmth. The hair in our nose, ears, and around our eyes ensures these touchy regions of the body from dust and other little particles.

Eyebrows and eyelashes secure our eyes by diminishing the measure of light and particles that go into them. The fine hair that covers our bodies gives warmth and secures our skin. Hair likewise pads the body against damage.

Human hair comprises of the hair shaft, which ventures from the skin's surface, and the root, a delicate thickened knob at the base of the hair inserted in the skin. The root closes in the hair knob. The hair globule sits in a sac-like pit in the skin considered the follicle, from which the hair develops.

At the base of the follicle is, where hair development really happens. The papilla contains a corridor that feeds the base of the hair. As cells duplicate and deliver keratin to solidify the structure, they are pushed up the follicle and through the skin's surface as a pole of hair.

Every hair has three layers: the medulla at the inside, which is delicate; the cortex, which encompasses the medulla and is the principal part of the hair; and the fingernail skin, the hard external layer that ensures the pole.

Hair develops by framing new cells at the base of the root. These cells duplicate to frame a bar of tissue in the skin. The bars of cells move upward through the skin as new cells frame underneath them. As they climb, they are cut off from their supply of sustenance and begin to frame a hard protein called keratin in a procedure called keratinization. As this procedure happens, the hair cells kick the bucket. The dead cells and keratin frame the pole of the hair.

Every hair becomes about ¼ inch (around 6 millimeters) consistently and continues developing for up to 6 years. The hair at that point drops out and another develops in its place. The length of a man's hair relies upon the length of the developing period of the follicle. Follicles are dynamic for 2 to 6 years; they rest for around 3 months after that. A man ends up uncovered if the scalp follicles end up inert and never again deliver new hair. Thick hair becomes out of expansive follicles; slender follicles create thin hair.

The shade of a man's hair is controlled by the sum and conveyance of melanin in the cortex of every hair (a similar melanin that is found in the epidermis). Hair likewise contains a yellow-red shade; individuals who have blonde or red hair have just a little measure of melanin in their hair. Hair ends up dark when individuals age since shade never again frames.

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All About Nails

Nails become out of profound overlap in the skin of the fingers and toes. As epidermal cells beneath the nail root climb to the surface of the skin, they increment in number, and those nearest to the nail root end up leveled and squeezed firmly together. Every cell is changed into a thin plate; these plates are heaped in layers to frame the nail. Similarly, as with hair, nails are shaped by keratinization. At the point when the nail cells gather, the nail is pushed forward.

The skin beneath the nail is known as the framework. The bigger piece of the nail, the nail plate, looks pink as a result of the system of minor veins in the basic dermis. The whitish bow molded zone at the base of the nail is known as the lunula.

Fingernails become around three or four times as fast as toenails. Like hair, nails develop more quickly in summer than in winter. On the off chance that a nail is detached, it will regrow if the framework isn't seriously harmed. White spots on the nail are at times because of transitory changes in development rate.

Skin Problems

A portion of the things that can influence the skin, nails, and hair are depicted beneath.


Medicinal specialists utilize the term dermatitis to allude to any aggravation that may be related with swelling, tingling, and redness of the skin. There are numerous sorts of dermatitis, including:
  • Atopic dermatitis is likewise called skin inflammation. It's a typical, genetic dermatitis that causes an irritated rash essentially on the face, trunk, arms, and legs. It normally creates in early stages, however, can likewise show up in early youth. It might be related with unfavorably susceptible maladies, for example, asthma or sustenance, regular, or ecological hypersensitivities.
  • Contact dermatitis happens when the skin comes into contact with a disturbing substance or a substance that a man is susceptible to. The best-known reason for contact dermatitis is poison ivy. Be that as it may, bunches of different things cause contact dermatitis, incorporating synthetics found in clothing cleanser, beautifiers, and aromas, and metals like adornments, nickel plating on a belt clasp, or the back of the catches on your pants.
  • Seborrheic dermatitis, a sleek rash on the scalp, face, chest, and back, is identified with an overproduction of sebum from the sebaceous organs. This condition is regular in adolescents.

Bacterial Skin Infections

  • Impetigo. Impetigo is a bacterial disease that outcomes in a nectar shaded, dried up the rash, frequently on the face close to the mouth and nose.
  • Cellulitis. Cellulitis is a contamination of the skin and subcutaneous tissue that regularly happens when microorganisms are presented through a cut, chomp, or another break in the skin. The influenced territory is generally warm and delicate and has some redness.
  • Streptococcal and staphylococcal infection. These two sorts of microscopic organisms are the fundamental driver of cellulitis and impetigo. Certain kinds of these microscopic organisms are additionally in charge of unmistakable rashes on the skin, incorporating the rashes related with red fever and harmful stun disorder.

Fungal Infections

Fungal Infections of the Skin and Nails
  • Candidal dermatitis. A warm, damp condition, for example, that found in the folds of the skin in the diaper territory of newborn children, is ideal for the development of the yeast Candida. Yeast diseases of the skin in more established kids, adolescents, and grown-ups are less normal.
  • Tinea infection (ringworm). Ringworm, which isn't a worm by any stretch of the imagination, is a parasite disease that can influence the skin, nails, or scalp. Tinea parasites can taint the skin and related tissues of the body. The restorative name for ringworm of the scalp is tinea capitis; ringworm of the body is called tinea corporis, and ringworm of the nails is called tinea unguium. With tinea corporis, the growths can cause layered, ring-like injuries anyplace on the body.
  • Tinea pedis. This disease of the feet is caused by similar sorts of parasites that reason ringworm. Competitor's foot is regularly found in teenagers and will probably occur amid warm climate.

Other Skin Problems

  • Parasitic infestations. Parasites (normally modest creepy crawlies or worms) can feast upon or tunnel into the skin, regularly bringing about an irritated rash. Scabies and lice are cases of parasitic invasions. Both are infectious — meaning they can be effectively gotten by other individuals.
  • Viral infections. Numerous infections cause trademark rashes on the skin, including varicella, the infection that causes chickenpox and shingles; herpes simplex, which causes mouth blisters; human papillomavirus (HPV), the infection that causes warts; and a large group of others.
  • Acne (skin Vulgaris). Skin break out is the absolute most normal skin condition in teenagers. Some level of skin inflammation is seen in 85% of young people, and about all teenagers have an intermittent pimple, acne, or whitehead.
  • Skin cancer. Skin malignancy is uncommon in kids and teenagers, however great sun insurance propensities built up amid these years can help forestall skin tumors like melanoma (a genuine type of skin disease that can spread to different parts of the body) sometime down the road, particularly among reasonable cleaned individuals who sunburn effortlessly.
Notwithstanding these maladies and conditions, the skin can be harmed in various ways. Minor scratches, cuts, and wounds recuperate rapidly individually, however different wounds — extreme cuts and consumes, for instance — require restorative treatment.

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Disorders of the Scalp and Hair

Tinea capitis, a sort of ringworm, is a parasitic disease that structures a flaky, ring-like sore in the scalp. It's infectious and basic among school-age youngsters.

Alopecia is a region of balding. Ringworm is a typical reason for impermanent alopecia in kids. Alopecia can likewise be caused by tight plaiting that pulls on the hair roots (this condition is called footing alopecia). Alopecia areata (where a man's hair drops out in round or oval fixes on the scalp) is a less basic condition that can now and then influences youngsters.

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